By James Foster, J. D. Nightingale
This textbook presents a good creation to a subject matter that's tremendous effortless to get slowed down in. I took a one semester path that used this article as an undergraduate, in which i presumed the booklet used to be basically respectable, yet then while I took a gradute direction that used Carroll's Spacetime and Geometry is while i actually got here to understand the guidance this publication gave me (not that Carroll's ebook is undesirable, I simply would not suggest it for a primary reading). let alone the e-book is beautiful reasonable so far as physics texts move.
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Extra info for A Short Course in General Relativity
No reduction of the excess positrons has been observed, up to the energy scales so far analyzed. It will be necessary to collect and analyze data for several additional months, before obtaining accurate results at higher energies and— maybe—conclusive answers about the dark matter origin of these positrons. Leaving aside for the moment dark matter, in the rest of this chapter we will focus on the problem of the cosmic acceleration, with a short discussion of three interesting possibilities. We will consider, in particular, the case of cosmic acceleration due to (1) a modification of the gravitational interaction at large distances; or to (2) the presence of a new substance, or field of forces, with the typical properties of dark energy; or to (3) unconventional physical properties of the state that we call the “vacuum,” and that still we do not understand deeply enough.
About 14 TeV). 20 2 Gravity at Small Distances Fig. 2 An example of Kaluza–Klein geometry for a two-dimensional space with one compactified dimension. A very long cylinder with tiny diameter, if observed from a sufficiently large distance, may appear as a one-dimensional object, extended in length but with no thickness In order to visualize a geometric configuration of this type we can imagine a very long and thin cylindrical object (see Fig. 2). Its surface corresponds to a twodimensional space, and one of its dimensions—the one aligned along the cylinder axis—can be extended in length without limits; the other dimension, instead, is curled up onto itself in a compact shape (a circle of finite radius).
Excluding the (more exotic) case of negative energy—which could be problematic in a quantum context—we are then lead to conclude that the current evolution of our Universe should be mainly controlled by a cosmic element (dubbed “dark energy”) with negative pressure. At this point, we can officially open the competition to select the most suitable candidates to play the role of dark energy. The simplest and more natural choice—adopted from the outset, and still valid— is the introduction of a cosmological constant , corresponding to a dark-energy density independent of time and of the spatial position.
A Short Course in General Relativity by James Foster, J. D. Nightingale