By Michael Frank Hordeski
Revised and up-to-date, Alternative Fuels addresses some of the components affecting our strength use, together with the supply and desirability of varied fuels—especially using hydrogen. This new version covers new hydrogen advancements in expertise, oil offers and new drilling ideas, most up-to-date details on hydrogen street tasks, breakthroughs in gas cellphone know-how and extremely low emissions in transportation, the newest statistics on rising oil markets, strength reserves, and carbon dioxide raises.
Also integrated is fabric on strength coverage, gas provide traits, substitute situations, power usage, sustainable power, rate research, gasoline escalation, power and improvement, regulatory matters, limitations to implementation, conversion platforms, garage structures, thermodynamic potency, gas chain potency, life-cycle potency, know-how concerns extracting, refining, air emission matters, security, ordinary gasoline hydrogen gasoline, methanol, ethanol, steam reforming and gas cells.
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Additional info for Alternative Fuels: The Future of Hydrogen, Third Edition
These theories are no longer considered probable. The idea of an inorganic source came from the hydrocarbons themselves, since methane, ethane, acetylene, and benzene can be made from inorganic substances. The hydrogen content of petroleum is much higher than in most organic substances. It is possible that this hydrogen is inorganic in origin, acquired from the rocks through which the oil passes. It is also possible that the hydrogen was added by organic processes such as bacterial action. Table 2-6 lists the basic reasons for organic origin.
The solid and semi-solid hydrocarbons form the residues of the distillation. Since petroleum is a mixture, its physical properties vary considerably, depending on the type and proportions of the hydrocarbons and impurities present. These physical properties include the density, viscosity, optical activity, refractive index, color, fluorescence, odor, pour and cold points, flash-and-burn points, coefficient of expansion, surface and interfacial tension, capillarity, and absorption. 38 Alternative Fuels—The Future of Hydrogen An important property is the density.
Distillation Petroleum and natural gas underground and in their natural state are under greater pressures and higher temperatures than they are at the surface. As the crude oil moves upward in the well, from the reservoir to the surface, it experiences changes in pressure and temperature. This produces changes in its original composition. Crude oil is a liquid containing gases in solution, with microscopic particles of solid hydrocarbons in suspension. Because these substances do not have the same boiling point (the point where they pass into the gaseous state) or the same freezing point (the point where they pass into the solid state), it is possible to separate them as the temperature increases.
Alternative Fuels: The Future of Hydrogen, Third Edition by Michael Frank Hordeski