By Stephen P. Cohen, Sunil Dasgupta
India's starting to be affluence has led specialists to foretell an enormous rearmament attempt. The second-most populous country on the planet is commencing to wield the industrial strength anticipated of the sort of behemoth. Its border with Pakistan is a tinderbox, the subcontinent is still susceptible to non secular extremism, and an army competition among India and China may possibly erupt sooner or later. India has lengthy had the incentive for modernizing its military—it now has the assets in addition. What may still we predict to work out sooner or later, and what is going to be the most probably ramifications? In Arming with out Aiming, Stephen Cohen and Sunil Dasgupta resolution these an important questions.
India's military wish new guns worthy greater than $100 billion. yet every one of these guns needs to come from international providers as a result mess ups of India's indigenous examine and improvement. guns providers from different countries are queuing up in New Delhi. an extended courting among India and Russian brands is going again to the chilly struggle. extra lately, India and Israel have constructed powerful army exchange ties. Now, a brand new army courting with the U.S. has generated the best desire for army transformation in India.
Against this backdrop of latest affluence and newfound entry to overseas army expertise, Cohen and Dasgupta examine India's army modernization to discover haphazard army switch that lacks political course, suffers from balkanization of army association and doctrine, continues to be restricted by way of slim potential making plans, and is pushed through the pursuit of know-how loose from military-strategic goals. the nature of army swap in India, in particular the disorder within the political-military institution with reference to procurement, is finally the results of a historic doctrine of strategic restraint in position when you consider that Nehru. In that context, its strategy of arming with out strategic function continues to be possible as India seeks great-power lodging of its upward push and doesn't are looking to glance threatening. the risk lies in its modernization efforts precipitating a interval of strategic statement or contributing to misperception of India's intentions through Pakistan and China, its so much speedy rivals.
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Extra info for Arming Without Aiming: India's Military Modernization
We believe that this state of arming without aiming will continue into the future. While the behavior of individual political leaders may be suboptimal in defense matters, a kind of collective wisdom has been at play over the years and across political boundaries. The collective wisdom sets down the building blocks of enhanced military power, but not the institutional mechanisms associated with strategic assertiveness. Without strong institutional reform that pushes the development of joint doctrines, integrates the services with political decisionmaking in higher defense planning, and issues clear statements of strategic national goals, increased resources cannot enhance Indian capacity sufficiently to alter the military balance with its main rivals.
Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi lost the 1989 elections because of allegations of corruption related to a number of weapons deals. Rather than overhaul the system, the government slowed down procurement so that the armed forces were unable to spend their allocations and returned budget funds to the treasury. With the exception of the nuclear weapons, the history of Indian defense research and development has been an unhappy one. DRDO is the bestfunded research institution in India, but it has not produced a single weapons system that could alter the country’s strategic condition.
For a country that has a per capita GDP that is approximately one-fiftieth of the United States, this level of spending must be prohibitive. The Indian government has given the greatest attention to military research and innovation: New Delhi has spent more money on military R&D than any other category. While it seeks external assistance for these projects, it is fierce in protecting the strategic independence that makes these innovations useful. Despite DRDO’s failures, the government has not only persisted in its goals, but also eschewed the overhaul of the responsible agencies.
Arming Without Aiming: India's Military Modernization by Stephen P. Cohen, Sunil Dasgupta