Blood: Physiology and Circulation (The Human Body) - download pdf or read online

By Kara Rogers

ISBN-10: 1615301216

ISBN-13: 9781615301218

Even though its ubiquity within the human physique may perhaps make it appear unremarkable, easily positioned, blood makes lifestyles attainable. It nourishes cells during the physique and transports carbon dioxide to the lungs. with out it, the physique will be not able to struggle ailment and an infection or functionality in any respect. Readers are invited to stick to the process this notable fluid because it circulates in the course of the physique and know about its part elements. distinct diagrams complement the textual content and make allowance readers a glimpse into the anatomy and life-sustaining houses of human blood.

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Additional resources for Blood: Physiology and Circulation (The Human Body)

Example text

Each hemoglobin molecule has a tetrahedral structure. A hemoglobin protein assumes this structure because it contains four polypeptide chains (a tetramer), each chain consisting of more than 140 amino acids. To each chain is attached a chemical structure known as a heme 35 7 Blood: Physiology and Circulation 7 Artist’s conception of the hemoglobin tetramer. Two αβ dimers combine to form the complete hemoglobin molecule. Each heme group contains a central iron atom, which is available to bind a molecule of oxygen.

Hemorrhage or accelerated destruction of red cells leads to enhanced marrow activity. The marrow can increase its production of red cells up to eight times the usual rate. After that, if blood loss continues, anemia develops. The rate of erythropoiesis is sensitive to the oxygen tension of the arterial blood. When oxygen tension falls, more red cells are produced and the red cell count rises. For this reason, persons who live at high altitude have higher red cell counts than those who live at sea level.

All porphyrin compounds absorb light intensely at or close to 410 nanometres. Structurally, porphyrin consists of four pyrrole rings (five-membered closed structures containing 38 7 The Fluid of Life 7 one nitrogen and four carbon atoms) linked to each other by methine groups (−CH=). The iron atom is kept in the centre of the porphyrin ring by interaction with the four nitrogen atoms. The iron atom can combine with two other substituents: in oxyhemoglobin one substituent is a histidine of the protein carrier and the other is an oxygen molecule.

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Blood: Physiology and Circulation (The Human Body) by Kara Rogers


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